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Kruskal [J. Math. Phys. 3, 806 (1962)] showed that each nearly periodic dynamical system admits a formal U(1) symmetry, generated by the so-called roto-rate. We prove that such systems also admit nearly invariant manifolds of each order, near which rapid oscillations are suppressed. We study the nonlinear normal stability of these slow manifolds for nearly periodic Hamiltonian systems on barely symplectic manifolds—manifolds equipped with closed, non-degenerate 2-forms that may be degenerate to leading order. In particular, we establish a sufficient condition for long-term normal stability based on second derivatives of the well-known adiabatic invariant. We use these results to investigate the problem of embedding guiding center dynamics of a magnetized charged particle as a slow manifold in a nearly periodic system. We prove that one previous embedding and two new embeddings enjoy long-term normal stability and thereby strengthen the theoretical justification for these models.
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- 1 Active
01/09/2018 → 31/08/2023
Project: Academy of Finland: Other research funding