Nitrous Oxide Production at a Fully Covered Wastewater Treatment Plant: Results of a Long-Term Online Monitoring Campaign

Heta Kosonen, Mari Heinonen*, Anna Mikola, Henri Haimi, Michela Mulas, Francesco Corona, Riku Vahala

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

76 Citations (Scopus)


The nitrous oxide emissions of the Viikinmäki wastewater treatment plant were measured in a 12 month online monitoring campaign. The measurements, which were conducted with a continuous gas analyzer, covered all of the unit operations of the advanced wastewater-treatment process. The relation between the nitrous oxide emissions and certain process parameters, such as the wastewater temperature, influent biological oxygen demand, and ammonium nitrogen load, was investigated by applying online data obtained from the process-control system at 1 min intervals. Although seasonal variations in the measured nitrous oxide emissions were remarkable, the measurement data indicated no clear relationship between these emissions and seasonal changes in the wastewater temperature. The diurnal variations of the nitrous oxide emissions did, however, strongly correlate with the alternation of the influent biological oxygen demand and ammonium nitrogen load to the aerated zones of the activated sludge process. Overall, the annual nitrous oxide emissions of 168 g/PE/year and the emission factor of 1.9% of the influent nitrogen load are in the high range of values reported in the literature but in very good agreement with the results of other long-term online monitoring campaigns implemented at full-scale wastewater-treatment plants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5547-5554
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jun 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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