New Evaluation of T- T2000 from 0.02 K to 1 K by Independent Thermodynamic Methods

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


  • J. Engert
  • A. Kirste
  • A. Shibahara
  • A. Casey
  • L. V. Levitin
  • J. Saunders
  • O. Hahtela
  • A. Kemppinen
  • E. Mykkänen
  • M. Prunnila
  • D. Gunnarsson
  • L. Roschier
  • Matthias Meschke

  • J.P. Pekola

Research units

  • Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt
  • Royal Holloway University of London
  • VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
  • Aivon Oy


This paper reports on the results achieved within the European Metrology Research Programme project “Implementing the new kelvin—InK” in the low-temperature range below 1 K. One of the main objectives of the InK project was the determination of new thermodynamic temperature data for comparison with the Provisional Low Temperature Scale 2000 (PLTS-2000), to provide reliable T- T2000 values. To this end, we have investigated three different types of primary thermometers: the current sensing noise thermometer, the primary magnetic field fluctuation thermometer and the Coulomb blockade thermometer. Based on a thorough investigation of the thermometers, detailed uncertainty budgets were established for the measurement of thermodynamic temperatures. Direct comparison measurements between all thermometers demonstrate the agreement of temperature measurements within less than 1 %. Our new T- T2000 data confirm the correctness of the PLTS-2000 in the temperature range from 20 mK up to about 700 mK with relative combined standard uncertainties better than 0.62 %.


Original languageEnglish
Article number125
Number of pages11
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • Mise en pratique of the kelvin (MeP-K), PLTS-2000, Primary thermometry, Temperature scale

ID: 9115105