Neutral line model of substorms: Past results and present view

DN Baker*, T.I. Pulkkinen, V Angelopoulos, W Baumjohann, RL McPherron

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature reviewScientificpeer-review

Abstract

The near-Earth neutral line (NENL) model of magnetospheric substorms is reviewed. The observed phenomenology of substorms is discussed including the role of coupling with the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field, the growth phase sequence, the expansion phase (and onset), and the recovery phase. New observations and modeling results are put into the context of the prior model framework. Significant issues and concerns about the shortcomings of the NENL model are addressed. Such issues as ionosphere-tail coupling, large-scale mapping, onset triggering, and observational timing are discussed. It is concluded that the NENL model is evolving and being improved so as to include new observations and theoretical insights. More work is clearly required in order to incorporate fully the complete set of ionospheric, near-tail, midtail, and deep-tail features of substorms. Nonetheless, the NENL model still seems to provide the best available framework for ordering the complex, global manifestations of substorms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12975-13010
Number of pages36
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research
Volume101
Issue numberA6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 1996
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • NEAR-EARTH MAGNETOTAIL
  • CENTRAL PLASMA SHEET
  • INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC-FIELD
  • SOLAR-WIND CONTROL
  • MULTI-SPACECRAFT OBSERVATIONS
  • HIGH TIME RESOLUTION
  • GROWTH-PHASE
  • GEOMAGNETIC-ACTIVITY
  • MAGNETOSPHERIC SUBSTORMS
  • CURRENT DISRUPTION

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