Neural network-based model reference control of braking electric vehicles

Valery Vodovozov*, Andrei Aksjonov, Eduard Petlenkov, Zoja Raud

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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The problem of energy recovery in braking of an electric vehicle is solved here, which ensures high quality blended deceleration using electrical and friction brakes. A model reference controller is offered, capable to meet the conflicting requirements of intensive and gradual braking scenarios at changing road surfaces. In this study, the neural network controller provides torque gradient control without a tire model, resulting in the return of maximal energy to the hybrid energy storage during braking. The torque allocation algorithm determines how to share the driver’s request between the friction and electrical brakes in such a way as to enable regeneration for all braking modes, except when the battery state of charge and voltage levels are saturated, and a solo friction brake has to be used. The simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed coupled two-layer neural network capable of capturing various dynamic behaviors that could not be included in the simplified physics-based model. A comparison of the simulation and experimental results demonstrates that the velocity, slip, and torque responses confirm the proper car performance, while the system successfully copes with the strong nonlinearity and instability of the vehicle dynamics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2373
Number of pages22
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 22 Apr 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Braking
  • Electric vehicle
  • Energy recovery
  • Model reference controller
  • Neural network


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