Neoclassical and turbulent e × B flows in flux-driven gyrokinetic simulations of Ohmic tokamak plasmas

P. Niskala, A. D. Gurchenko, E. Z. Gusakov, A. B. Altukhov, L. A. Esipov, L. Chôné, T. P. Kiviniemi, S. Leerink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The interplay of flows and turbulence in Ohmic FT-2 tokamak plasmas is analysed via gyrokinetic simulations with the flux-driven ELMFIRE code. The simulation predictions agree qualitatively with analytical estimates for the scaling of the neoclassical radial electric field as a function of collisionality for ad hoc parameters. For the experimental parameters, the global full-f modeling agrees well with the analytical estimates in a neoclassical setting, while including kinetic electrons and impurities has a small impact. Allowing turbulence to develop modifies the flow profile through relaxation of profiles caused by turbulent transport, non-adiabatic response of passing electrons around rational surfaces, and turbulent flow drive. Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is the main zonal flow component in the simulations, and its frequency and amplitude agree with theoretical predictions and experimental measurements. In the simulations, the non-linear energy transfer from the turbulence to the flows through the Reynolds force is balanced by the collisional flow dissipation. Temporal relationship between the oscillating flow, Reynolds force, and turbulent particle flux is consistent with the fundamental physics picture of GAM modulating turbulent transport on the time scale of the mode. Experimental evidence also suggests anti-correlation of GAM amplitude and turbulent fluctuations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112006
Pages (from-to)1-12
JournalNuclear Fusion
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 3 Oct 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • geodesic acoustic mode
  • gyrokinetic
  • plasma turbulence
  • simulation
  • tokamak
  • zonal flows


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