Negative nanokelvin temperatures in the nuclear spin systems of silver and rhodium metals

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Research units


Using a dilution refrigerator and two nuclear cooling stages in series, we have reached the nuclear spin temperatures T=500 pK and T = -1.6 nK in silver and T=280 pK and T=-750 pK in rhodium; the latter pair of values are the lowest and 'highest' temperatures ever produced. Spontaneous antiferromagnetic spin ordering has been observed in silver at T>0 and ferromagnetic ordering at TN=560 pK and Tc=-1.9 nK. In rhodium, the transition points have not been reached but the metal tends towards antiferromagnetism both at T>0 and at T


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)291-292
Number of pages2
JournalPhysica B: Condensed Matter
Issue numberPART 1
Publication statusPublished - 2 Feb 1994
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • negative temperature, rhodium, silver

ID: 4381555