Negative absolute temperatures: "Hot" spins in spontaneous magnetic order

Pertti Hakonen*, Olli V. Lounasmaa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Depending on the sign of the spin temperature in the picokelvin range, antiterromagnetic nuclear and ferromagnetic nuclear orders in silver are caused by the same interactions. In rhodium, the antiferromagnetic state is preterred both at temperatures greater than and temperatures less than zero. The lowest and 'highest' temperatures ever produced on this scale and measured, 280 and -750 picokelvin, respectively, have been reached in the course of these experiments. The results on silver, in particular, show that negative temperatures are real, not fictitious, quantities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1821-1825
Number of pages5
Issue number5180
Publication statusPublished - 1994
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • negative absolute temperatures
  • spontaneous magnetic order


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