Nanostructured dye solar cells on flexible substrates-Review

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Nanostructured dye solar cells on flexible substrates-Review. / Toivola, Minna; Halme, Janne; Miettunen, Kati; Aitola, Kerttu; Lund, Peter.

In: International Journal of Energy Research, Vol. 33, No. 13, 25.10.2009, p. 1145-1160.

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature review

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@article{7670f07a2ffb46b1bf812dee74b87617,
title = "Nanostructured dye solar cells on flexible substrates-Review",
abstract = "This review presents an overview of the current state of research on nanostructured titanium dioxide dye solar cells (DSCs) on alternative substrates to glass. Replacing the traditionally used heavy, rigid, and expensive glass substrate with materials such as plastic foils or metal sheets is crucial to enable large volume cost-efficient roll-to-roll type industrial scale manufacturing of the cells and to make this solar cell technology properly competitive with silicon and thin film photovoltaic devices. One of the biggest problems with plastic substrates is their low-temperature tolerance, which makes sintering of the photoelectrode films impossible, whereas with metals, their corrosion resistance against the iodine-containing electrolyte typically used in DSCs limits the amount of metal materials suitable for substrates. However, significant progress has been made in developing new materials, electrode film deposition and post-treatment methods suitable for low-temperature processing. Also, metals that do not corrode in the presence of iodine electrolyte have been found and successfully employed as DSC substrates. The highest power conversion efficiencies obtained with plastic and metal substrates are already 7-9{\%}, which is not far from the best glass cell efficiencies, 10-11{\%}, and comparable also to, for example, amorphous silicon solar cell efficiencies. One of the most important of the remaining research challenges of DSCs on flexible substrates is to ensure that the long-term stability of the cells is realistic to consumer applications, for example, with providing efficient enough encapsulation to prevent water and other impurities penetration into the cells. Degradation mechanisms specific to metal-based cells are another issue that needs deeper understanding still. More exotic approaches such as depositing the DSC structure on optical fiber or employing carbon nanomaterials to increase the cell efficiency are also discussed in this paper. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.",
keywords = "dye solar cell, flexible, plastic substrate, metal substrate, optical fiber, carbon nanomaterials, LOW-TEMPERATURE FABRICATION, WALL CARBON NANOTUBES, ENERGY-CONVERSION EFFICIENCY, COUNTER ELECTRODES, TIO2 FILM, THIN-FILM, LOW-COST, HYDROTHERMAL CRYSTALLIZATION, NANOPARTICLE FILMS, COMPRESSION METHOD",
author = "Minna Toivola and Janne Halme and Kati Miettunen and Kerttu Aitola and Peter Lund",
year = "2009",
month = "10",
day = "25",
doi = "10.1002/er.1605",
language = "English",
volume = "33",
pages = "1145--1160",
journal = "International Journal of Energy Research",
issn = "0363-907X",
publisher = "WILEY-BLACKWELL",
number = "13",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Nanostructured dye solar cells on flexible substrates-Review

AU - Toivola, Minna

AU - Halme, Janne

AU - Miettunen, Kati

AU - Aitola, Kerttu

AU - Lund, Peter

PY - 2009/10/25

Y1 - 2009/10/25

N2 - This review presents an overview of the current state of research on nanostructured titanium dioxide dye solar cells (DSCs) on alternative substrates to glass. Replacing the traditionally used heavy, rigid, and expensive glass substrate with materials such as plastic foils or metal sheets is crucial to enable large volume cost-efficient roll-to-roll type industrial scale manufacturing of the cells and to make this solar cell technology properly competitive with silicon and thin film photovoltaic devices. One of the biggest problems with plastic substrates is their low-temperature tolerance, which makes sintering of the photoelectrode films impossible, whereas with metals, their corrosion resistance against the iodine-containing electrolyte typically used in DSCs limits the amount of metal materials suitable for substrates. However, significant progress has been made in developing new materials, electrode film deposition and post-treatment methods suitable for low-temperature processing. Also, metals that do not corrode in the presence of iodine electrolyte have been found and successfully employed as DSC substrates. The highest power conversion efficiencies obtained with plastic and metal substrates are already 7-9%, which is not far from the best glass cell efficiencies, 10-11%, and comparable also to, for example, amorphous silicon solar cell efficiencies. One of the most important of the remaining research challenges of DSCs on flexible substrates is to ensure that the long-term stability of the cells is realistic to consumer applications, for example, with providing efficient enough encapsulation to prevent water and other impurities penetration into the cells. Degradation mechanisms specific to metal-based cells are another issue that needs deeper understanding still. More exotic approaches such as depositing the DSC structure on optical fiber or employing carbon nanomaterials to increase the cell efficiency are also discussed in this paper. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

AB - This review presents an overview of the current state of research on nanostructured titanium dioxide dye solar cells (DSCs) on alternative substrates to glass. Replacing the traditionally used heavy, rigid, and expensive glass substrate with materials such as plastic foils or metal sheets is crucial to enable large volume cost-efficient roll-to-roll type industrial scale manufacturing of the cells and to make this solar cell technology properly competitive with silicon and thin film photovoltaic devices. One of the biggest problems with plastic substrates is their low-temperature tolerance, which makes sintering of the photoelectrode films impossible, whereas with metals, their corrosion resistance against the iodine-containing electrolyte typically used in DSCs limits the amount of metal materials suitable for substrates. However, significant progress has been made in developing new materials, electrode film deposition and post-treatment methods suitable for low-temperature processing. Also, metals that do not corrode in the presence of iodine electrolyte have been found and successfully employed as DSC substrates. The highest power conversion efficiencies obtained with plastic and metal substrates are already 7-9%, which is not far from the best glass cell efficiencies, 10-11%, and comparable also to, for example, amorphous silicon solar cell efficiencies. One of the most important of the remaining research challenges of DSCs on flexible substrates is to ensure that the long-term stability of the cells is realistic to consumer applications, for example, with providing efficient enough encapsulation to prevent water and other impurities penetration into the cells. Degradation mechanisms specific to metal-based cells are another issue that needs deeper understanding still. More exotic approaches such as depositing the DSC structure on optical fiber or employing carbon nanomaterials to increase the cell efficiency are also discussed in this paper. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

KW - dye solar cell

KW - flexible

KW - plastic substrate

KW - metal substrate

KW - optical fiber

KW - carbon nanomaterials

KW - LOW-TEMPERATURE FABRICATION

KW - WALL CARBON NANOTUBES

KW - ENERGY-CONVERSION EFFICIENCY

KW - COUNTER ELECTRODES

KW - TIO2 FILM

KW - THIN-FILM

KW - LOW-COST

KW - HYDROTHERMAL CRYSTALLIZATION

KW - NANOPARTICLE FILMS

KW - COMPRESSION METHOD

UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/er.1605

U2 - 10.1002/er.1605

DO - 10.1002/er.1605

M3 - Literature review

VL - 33

SP - 1145

EP - 1160

JO - International Journal of Energy Research

JF - International Journal of Energy Research

SN - 0363-907X

IS - 13

ER -

ID: 3208104