Nanofibrillated cellulose/carboxymethyl cellulose composite with improved wet strength

Nikolaos Pahimanolis, Arto Salminen, Paavo A. Penttilä, Juuso T. Korhonen, Leena-Sisko Johansson, Janne Ruokolainen, Ritva Serimaa, Jukka Seppälä

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

69 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, nanofibrillated cellulose/carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) composite films were prepared using tape casting. The obtained transparent films showed shear induced partial alignment of fibrils along the casting direction, resulting in birefringence in cross polarized light. The carboxyl groups of CMC could be further utilized to create ionic crosslinking by treatment with glycidyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (GTMA). The GTMA treated composite films had improved mechanical properties both in wet and dry state. The chemical composition and morphologies of composites were analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1459-1468
Number of pages10
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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