Multiple heteroatom substitution to graphene nanoribbon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


  • Shigeki Kawai
  • Soichiro Nakatsuka
  • Takuji Hatakeyama
  • Rémy Pawlak
  • Tobias Meier
  • John Tracey
  • Ernst Meyer
  • Adam S. Foster

Research units

  • National Institute for Materials Science Tsukuba
  • Kwansei Gakuin University
  • University of Basel
  • Kanazawa University
  • Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz


Substituting heteroatoms into nanostructured graphene elements, such as graphene nanoribbons, offers the possibility for atomic engineering of electronic properties. To characterize these substitutions, functionalized atomic force microscopy (AFM)-a tool to directly resolve chemical structures-is one of themost promising tools, yet the chemical analysis of heteroatoms has been rarely performed. We synthesized multiple heteroatom-substituted graphene nanoribbons and showed that AFM can directly resolve elemental differences and can be correlated to the van der Waals radii, as well as the modulated local electron density caused by the substitution. This elemental-sensitive measurement takes an important step in the analysis of functionalized two-dimensional carbon materials.


Original languageEnglish
Article numbereaar7181
Pages (from-to)1-7
JournalScience Advances
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 13 Apr 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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