Multichannel Interleaved Velvet Noise

Karolina Prawda*, Sebastian Schlecht, Vesa Välimäki

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

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The cross-correlation of multichannel reverberation generated using interleaved velvet noise is studied. The interleaved velvet-noise reverberator was proposed recently for synthesizing the late reverb of an acoustic space. In addition to providing a computationally efficient structure and a perceptually smooth response, the interleaving method allows combining its independent branch outputs in different permutations, which are all equally smooth and flutter-free. For instance, a four-branch output can be combined in 4! or 24 ways. Additionally, each branch output set is mixed orthogonally, which increases the number of permutations from M! to M^2!, since sign inversions are taken along. Using specific matrices for this operation, which change the sign of velvet-noise sequences, decreases the correlation of some of the combinations. This paper shows that many selections of permutations offer a set of well decorrelated output channels, which produce a diffuse and colorless sound field, which is validated with spatial variation. The results of this work can be applied in the design of computationally efficient multichannel reverberators.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 25th International Conference on Digital Audio Effects (DAFx20in22)
EditorsGianpaolo Evangelista, Nicki Holighaus
Place of PublicationVienna, Austria
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)978-3-200-08599-2
Publication statusPublished - 8 Sept 2022
MoE publication typeA4 Conference publication
EventInternational Conference on Digital Audio Effects - University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Duration: 7 Sept 20229 Sept 2022
Conference number: 25


ConferenceInternational Conference on Digital Audio Effects
Abbreviated titleDAFx
Internet address


  • audio signal processing
  • reverb algorithm
  • artificial reverberation
  • multichannel audio
  • correlation analysis


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