Models for Evaluating the Power Consumption of Elevators - The Perspective of Power Systems and Demand Response

Toni Tukia

Research output: ThesisDoctoral ThesisCollection of Articles


The field of power systems is experiencing multiple changes that affect the designing and operation of power generation and delivery. The most significant drivers of the transition are climate change and urbanization. The climate change has accelerated the installation of intermittent, renewable power sources, which has increased the need for demand-side flexibility, or demand response (DR). On the other hand, the accelerating urbanization alters the demand of power, especially the distribution of load types, necessitating updates to load modeling. This dissertation focuses on developing power consumption models for an electric load type which has a rapidly increasing installed base due to the accelerating urbanization – the elevators. The main objective is to provide models which are relatively simple to adopt while providing adequate accuracy. The modeling has been divided into four stages.  The first stage of the modeling begins by assessing the diurnal, weekly, and seasonal energy consumption patterns of elevators with the help of literature and measurements. The results of the first stage indicate that elevator energy consumption is strongly recurring and the consumption patterns correlate with the day types, which can be obtained from the calendar. Furthermore, the intraday power consumption profiles are shown to result from the experienced passenger traffic patterns. The second stage of the modeling depicts an elevator model capable of providing the power consumption in high-resolution as a result of the simulated passenger traffic. The elevator model entails multiple layers. First, a collective group control algorithm is employed to minimize the waiting time of passengers in multi-unit elevator groups. Second, the power consumption profiles of each resulting trip are modeled by considering the mechanical and electrical properties of the elevator, the speed and direction of the trip, and the concurrent loading caused by the passengers. In addition, the stationary (standby) power demand is modeled to occupy the time between the trips. The third stage of the modeling employs the created elevator model to simulate the power consumption profile of a large elevator fleet with varying characteristics. The dissertation then assesses the power system-specific characteristics of the aggregated elevator power consumption in dense, urban areas with a high concentration of elevators. The fourth stage of the modeling is focused on evaluating the potential of elevators in demand response. With the combined simulation of elevator passenger traffic and the resulting power consumption, the model enables a detailed view of the performance of different control methods in terms of the obtained power change against the delay experienced by the passengers. Therefore, the approach can be employed to compare various elevator setups and apply DR actions only to the most favorable units to optimize the selection process of DR participation.
Translated title of the contributionMalleja hissien tehonkulutuksen arviointiin – sähkövoimajärjestelmän ja kysyntäjouston näkökulma
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor's degree
Awarding Institution
  • Aalto University
  • Lehtonen, Matti, Supervising Professor
  • Lehtonen, Matti, Thesis Advisor
Print ISBNs978-952-60-8569-2
Electronic ISBNs978-952-60-8570-8
Publication statusPublished - 2019
MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)


  • aggregate consumption
  • demand response
  • elevators
  • energy efficiency
  • frequency control
  • high-resolution load modeling
  • passenger traffic
  • vertical transportation


Dive into the research topics of 'Models for Evaluating the Power Consumption of Elevators - The Perspective of Power Systems and Demand Response'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this