Modeling the User's Body Effects on a 5G Millimeter-Wave Cellphone Antenna Array

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5G millimeter-wave (mmW) wireless communication is an important study hotspot in recent years. The human blockage has been a part of multipath radio channels, and its extra losses to received powers of wireless links are modeled in different works. This manuscript aims at establishing an analytically tractable and hence fast way to estimate user body effects on radiations of cellphone antennas at mmW frequencies. Mathematical operators are first defined to represent the user body effects on cellphone antenna radiation where shadowing and backscattering are modeled through knife-edge diffraction (KED) and geometrical optics (GO). Next, the proposed operators are tested for a cellphone antenna array that is held in landscape and portrait modes. Agreement of radiation pattern cuts and spherical coverage statistics is observed between full-wave simulations with complex human body models and our proposed mathematical operators. Finally, compared with full-wave simulations, the proposed model has a clear computational advantage in predicting user body effects on cellphone radiations without the need for a complex human body model, while maintaining a decent level of accuracy. The proposed operators, therefore, contribute to expediting the calculation of antenna-body interaction in mmW cellphone communication channel simulations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2663-2672
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number3
Early online date2024
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Antenna arrays
  • Antenna radiation patterns
  • Biological system modeling
  • Cellphone antenna array
  • Computational modeling
  • Diffraction
  • Mathematical models
  • Torso
  • channel simulations
  • mathematical model
  • millimeter-wave
  • user-effect modeling


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