Modeling the Multipath Cross-Polarization Ratio for 5-80-GHz Radio Links

Aki Karttunen*, Jan Järveläinen, Sinh Le Hong Nguyen, Katsuyuki Haneda

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
44 Downloads (Pure)


In this paper, we parameterize an excess loss-based multipath component (MPC) cross-polarization ratio (XPR) model in indoor and outdoor environments for above-5-GHz frequency bands. The results are based on 35 measurement campaigns in several frequency bands ranging from 5 to 80 GHz. A conventional XPR model of an MPC assuming a constant mean value fits our measurements very poorly and moreover overestimates the depolarization effect. Our measurements revealed a clear trend that the MPC XPR is inversely proportional to the excess loss in reference to the free-space path loss. The model is physically sound as a higher loss is attributed to more lossy interactions or to a greater number of interactions with objects, leading to a greater chance of depolarization. The measurements furthermore showed that the MPC XPR is not strongly frequency or environment dependent. In our MPC XPR model, an MPC with zero-dB excess loss has a mean XPR of 27 dB. The mean XPR decreases half-a-dB as the excess loss increases by every dB and the standard deviation around the mean is 7 dB. The model is applicable to existing channel models to reproduce realistic MPC XPRs for the above 5-GHz radio links.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4768-4778
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Above-6 GHz
  • sub-6 GHz
  • geometry-based stochastic channel model (GSCM)
  • channel models
  • cross-polarization ratio (XPR)
  • maximum likelihood estimation
  • measurement
  • millimeter-wave
  • multipath channels
  • multipath component (MPC)
  • radio propagation

Cite this