We model electronic properties of the second-monolayer Na adatom islands (quantum dots) on the Cu(111) surface covered homogeneously by the first Na monolayer. An axially symmetric three-dimensional jellium model, taking into account the effects due to the first Na monolayer and the Cu substrate, has been developed. The electronic structure is solved within the local-density approximation of the density-functional theory using a real-space multigrid method. The model enables the study of systems consisting of thousands of Na atoms. The results for the local density of states are compared with differential conductance (dI/dV) spectra and constant current topographs from scanning tunneling microscopy.
Torsti, T., Lindberg, V., Puska, M. J., & Hellsing, B. (2002). Model study of adsorbed metallic quantum dots: Na on Cu(111. Physical Review B, 66(23), 1-10. . https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.66.235420