Mitigation of B1+ inhomogeneity using spatially selective excitation with jointly designed quadratic spatial encoding magnetic fields and RF shimming

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


  • Yi Cheng Hsu
  • Riccardo Lattanzi
  • Ying Hua Chu
  • Martijn A. Cloos
  • Daniel K. Sodickson
  • Fa Hsuan Lin

Research units

  • National Taiwan University
  • New York University


Purpose: The inhomogeneity of flip angle distribution is a major challenge impeding the application of high-field MRI. We report a method combining spatially selective excitation using generalized spatial encoding magnetic fields (SAGS) with radiofrequency (RF) shimming to achieve homogeneous excitation. This method can be an alternative approach to address the challenge of inhomogeneity using nonlinear gradients. Methods: We proposed a two-step algorithm that jointly optimizes the combination of nonlinear spatial encoding magnetic fields and the combination of multiple RF transmitter coils and then optimizes the locations, RF amplitudes, and phases of the spokes. Results: Our results show that jointly designed SAGS and RF shimming can provide a more homogeneous flip angle distribution than using SAGS or RF shimming alone. Compared with RF shimming alone, our approach can reduce the relative standard deviation of flip angle by 56% and 52% using phantom and human head data, respectively. Conclusion: The jointly designed SAGS and RF shimming method can be used to achieve homogeneous flip angle distributions when fully parallel RF transmission is not available. Magn Reson Med 78:577–587, 2017.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)577–587
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • 7T, Fast imaging, Nonlinear gradient, RF inhomogeneity, RF shimming, SAR

ID: 9103237