We studied the effects of toxins, which inhibited the motility of boar spermatozoa, on rat liver mitochondria. The toxins studied were originally from bacteria isolated from moisture-damaged buildings where inhabitants exhibited symptoms, or from food causing poisoning. Some strains of Bacillus cereus and Streptomyces griseus produced potassium ionophoric peptides cereulide and valinomycin (Mikkola, et al., European Journal of Biochemistry 1999; 263: 112-117). Of interest is that channels were formed in black-lipid membranes (BLM) with a selectivity of K+ > Na+ at a concentration of 26 nM. Recently, bafilomycin Al-an inhibitor of V-H+-ATPases-was found also to be a K+-specific ionophore active at nanomolar concentrations (Teplova, et al., J Bioenerg Biomembr 2007; 39: 321-329), while B. amyloliquefaciens produced amylosin, a cation channel-forming peptide with a higher selectivity for K+ over Na+ at around 200 nM concentrations (Mikkola, et al., Toxicon 2007; 49: 1158-1171). Of interest is that channels were formed in BLM with a selectivity of K+ > Na+ at a concentration of 26 nM. The ionophores and the channel-forming amylosin caused swelling of energized mitochondria due to uptake of K+, loss of membrane potential, inhibition of maximal respiration rates due to loss of pyridine nucleotides, and inhibition of ATP synthesis. Various cell types may have different sensitivities to the effects of the ionophores. Thus, the mitochondrial membrane potential in neuronal cells was more sensitive to cereulide than in differentiated Paju cells (Teplova, et al., Acta Biochimica Polonica 2004; 51: 539-544). Swelling causes release of proapoptotic factors from mitochondria, which explains that undifferentiated neuronal cells were sensitive, while differentiated Paju cells were resistant, which probably is due to them having an increased expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the neuroprotective stanniocalcin.
- EMETIC TOXIN
- BAFILOMYCIN A1