Remote sensing methods, for example, photogrammetry and laser scanning can be employed to scan rock masses by digitizing underground spaces or slopes. To reconstruct a 3D model by photogrammetry, plenty of photos should be captured. This process is time-consuming and can be dangerous when the rock mass is unstable. Therefore, rapid capturing methods are needed to reduce the acquisition time. This can be achieved with LiDAR scanners that capture a 3D point cloud with a high-speed pulsed laser beam. However, the cost of laser scanners is high, which limits their usability. Apple’s iPhone 12 Pro Max smartphone is equipped with a LiDAR sensor and is much cheaper than conventional laser scanners. Several mobile applications for 3D models using the smartphone Lidar have been developed, making the scanning process easy. Therefore, smartphones can be used for rapid scanning of unstable surfaces of tunnels and slopes. In this study, 3D point clouds (3DPC) of a tunnel wall of the Underground Research Laboratory of Aalto University (URLA) are obtained by a high-resolution digital camera and smartphone LiDAR. The models are analyzed and compared. The results show the quality of the smartphone LiDAR sensor is adequate for generating 3D models of underground spaces.
|Journal||IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science|
|Publication status||Published - 10 Jan 2023|
|MoE publication type||A4 Article in a conference publication|
|Event||ISRM European Rock Mechanics Symposium: Rock and Fracture Mechanics in Rock Engineering and Mining: Rock and Fracture Mechanics in Rock Engineering and Mining - Dipoli, Otakaari 24, Espoo, Finland|
Duration: 11 Sep 2022 → 15 Sep 2022