Meta-model of servitization: The integrative profiling approach

Saara A. Brax*, Filippo Visintin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

85 Citations (Scopus)


This study develops a profiling framework that allows systematic comparison of different value constellations of industrial, service-based business models. Following the systematic review method, 154 research articles on servitization are analyzed using this profiling approach, producing an integrative meta-model of servitization. Three different approaches to represent servitization in studies are identified: 1) end-state models; 2) gradual transition models, and 3) stepwise progression models. These are systematically compared and eight conceptually different, generic value constellations ranging from low to high levels of servitization are identified: products with limited support; installed and supported products; complementary services; product-oriented solutions; systems leasing; operating services; managed service solutions; and total solutions. These form a pattern of servitization showing increases in complexity of the offering and value for the customer as well as changes in operational responsibilities in the value constellations. This approach resolves the gap of conceptual incommensurability’ in the literature by providing a reference against which the different value constellations of servitization can be compared. The meta-model connects the various perspectives, models and terminology into a base line theory of servitization as a process, and enables a systematic comparison of the different empirical studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-32
Number of pages16
JournalIndustrial Marketing Management
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Industrial service
  • Integrated solution
  • Servitization
  • Systematic review method
  • Transition process
  • Value constellation

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