Mechanical stimulation devices for mechanobiology studies: a market, literature, and patents review

F. Melo-Fonseca*, O. Carvalho, M. Gasik, G. Miranda, F. S. Silva

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
90 Downloads (Pure)


Significant advancements in various research and technological fields have contributed to remarkable findings on the physiological dynamics of the human body. To more closely mimic the complex physiological environment, research has moved from two-dimensional (2D) culture systems to more sophisticated three-dimensional (3D) dynamic cultures. Unlike bioreactors or microfluidic-based culture models, cells are typically seeded on polymeric substrates or incorporated into 3D constructs which are mechanically stimulated to investigate cell response to mechanical stresses, such as tensile or compressive. This review focuses on the working principles of mechanical stimulation devices currently available on the market or custom-built by research groups or protected by patents and highlights the main features still open to improvement. These are the features which could be focused on to perform, in the future, more reliable and accurate mechanobiology studies. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)340–371
JournalBio-Design and Manufacturing
Issue number3
Early online date1 Apr 2023
Publication statusPublished - May 2023
MoE publication typeA2 Review article, Literature review, Systematic review


  • Actuators
  • Biomaterials
  • Mechanical stress
  • Mechanotransduction
  • Polymers


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