Mechanical properties of ultraviolet-assisted paste extrusion and postextrusion ultraviolet-curing of three-dimensional printed biocomposites

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@article{aa84cc8093fc49369cf4333734da1559,
title = "Mechanical properties of ultraviolet-assisted paste extrusion and postextrusion ultraviolet-curing of three-dimensional printed biocomposites",
abstract = "Three-dimensional (3D) printing of biomaterials has the potential to become an ecologically advantageous alternative compared with conventional manufacturing based on oil-derived polymer materials. In this study, a novel 3D printing technology is applied that combines ultraviolet (UV) curing with paste extrusion. This hybrid manufacturing technique enables the fabrication of complex geometries from high filler-ratio pastes. The developed biocomposite aims for suitable mechanical properties in terms of tensile and compressive strength. It is composed of acrylic acid, cellulose acetate, α-cellulose, and fumed silica with a cellulose ratio of more than 25 vol-{\%}. The material is extruded with an in-house-developed 3D printer equipped with a 12 W UV light curing source, which enables concurrent curing and extrusion. Two different UV-curing strategies were tested: postcuring without concurrent curing and postcuring with concurrent curing. The total UV-curing duration was kept constant with all samples. Tensile testing in accordance with ASTM standard D638-14 Type 4, compression testing according to ASTM D695-15, and overhang tests were conducted. As a result, samples without notable shrinkage, suitable tensile strength (up to 17.72 MPa), competitive compression testing parameters (up to 19.73 MPa), and an enhanced overhang angle (increase of more than 25°) were produced, leading to new applications and more freedom in design due to higher possible unsupported overhangs when using UV-curing during the print. Overall, constant UV light radiation during the print leads to improved mechanical properties due to the possibility of bypassing the UV-penetration depth constraint. It should be considered when extruding photopolymer-based composites, especially for large and complex components with a low degree of translucency.",
keywords = "UV-assisted paste extrusion, biocomposite 3D printing, mechanical properties, open-source platform, overhang testing",
author = "Niklas Kretzschmar and Sami Lipponen and Ville Klar and Pearce, {Joshua M.} and Ranger, {Tom L.} and Jukka Sepp{\"a}l{\"a} and Jouni Partanen",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1089/3dp.2018.0148",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
pages = "127--137",
journal = "3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing",
issn = "2329-7662",
publisher = "Mary Ann Liebert Inc.",
number = "3",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Mechanical properties of ultraviolet-assisted paste extrusion and postextrusion ultraviolet-curing of three-dimensional printed biocomposites

AU - Kretzschmar, Niklas

AU - Lipponen, Sami

AU - Klar, Ville

AU - Pearce, Joshua M.

AU - Ranger, Tom L.

AU - Seppälä, Jukka

AU - Partanen, Jouni

PY - 2019/6/1

Y1 - 2019/6/1

N2 - Three-dimensional (3D) printing of biomaterials has the potential to become an ecologically advantageous alternative compared with conventional manufacturing based on oil-derived polymer materials. In this study, a novel 3D printing technology is applied that combines ultraviolet (UV) curing with paste extrusion. This hybrid manufacturing technique enables the fabrication of complex geometries from high filler-ratio pastes. The developed biocomposite aims for suitable mechanical properties in terms of tensile and compressive strength. It is composed of acrylic acid, cellulose acetate, α-cellulose, and fumed silica with a cellulose ratio of more than 25 vol-%. The material is extruded with an in-house-developed 3D printer equipped with a 12 W UV light curing source, which enables concurrent curing and extrusion. Two different UV-curing strategies were tested: postcuring without concurrent curing and postcuring with concurrent curing. The total UV-curing duration was kept constant with all samples. Tensile testing in accordance with ASTM standard D638-14 Type 4, compression testing according to ASTM D695-15, and overhang tests were conducted. As a result, samples without notable shrinkage, suitable tensile strength (up to 17.72 MPa), competitive compression testing parameters (up to 19.73 MPa), and an enhanced overhang angle (increase of more than 25°) were produced, leading to new applications and more freedom in design due to higher possible unsupported overhangs when using UV-curing during the print. Overall, constant UV light radiation during the print leads to improved mechanical properties due to the possibility of bypassing the UV-penetration depth constraint. It should be considered when extruding photopolymer-based composites, especially for large and complex components with a low degree of translucency.

AB - Three-dimensional (3D) printing of biomaterials has the potential to become an ecologically advantageous alternative compared with conventional manufacturing based on oil-derived polymer materials. In this study, a novel 3D printing technology is applied that combines ultraviolet (UV) curing with paste extrusion. This hybrid manufacturing technique enables the fabrication of complex geometries from high filler-ratio pastes. The developed biocomposite aims for suitable mechanical properties in terms of tensile and compressive strength. It is composed of acrylic acid, cellulose acetate, α-cellulose, and fumed silica with a cellulose ratio of more than 25 vol-%. The material is extruded with an in-house-developed 3D printer equipped with a 12 W UV light curing source, which enables concurrent curing and extrusion. Two different UV-curing strategies were tested: postcuring without concurrent curing and postcuring with concurrent curing. The total UV-curing duration was kept constant with all samples. Tensile testing in accordance with ASTM standard D638-14 Type 4, compression testing according to ASTM D695-15, and overhang tests were conducted. As a result, samples without notable shrinkage, suitable tensile strength (up to 17.72 MPa), competitive compression testing parameters (up to 19.73 MPa), and an enhanced overhang angle (increase of more than 25°) were produced, leading to new applications and more freedom in design due to higher possible unsupported overhangs when using UV-curing during the print. Overall, constant UV light radiation during the print leads to improved mechanical properties due to the possibility of bypassing the UV-penetration depth constraint. It should be considered when extruding photopolymer-based composites, especially for large and complex components with a low degree of translucency.

KW - UV-assisted paste extrusion

KW - biocomposite 3D printing

KW - mechanical properties

KW - open-source platform

KW - overhang testing

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85067114383&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1089/3dp.2018.0148

DO - 10.1089/3dp.2018.0148

M3 - Article

VL - 6

SP - 127

EP - 137

JO - 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing

JF - 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing

SN - 2329-7662

IS - 3

ER -

ID: 34337727