Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

R.C. Wolf, Anwaar Ali, A. Alonso, Jürgen Baldzuhn, Craig Beidler, M. Beurskens, C. Biedermann, H. S. Bosch, S. Bozhenkov, Rudolf Brakel, Andreas Dinklage, Yue Feng, G Fuchert, J. Geiger, Olaf Grulke, P. Helander, M. Hirsch, Udo Höfel, M. Jakubowski, Jens KnauerG Kocsis, R. König, Petra Kornejew, A. Kràmer-Flecken, M. Krychowiak, Matt Landreman, Andreas Langenberg, H.P. Laqua, S. Lazerson, H. Maaßberg, S. Marsen, M. Marushchenko, D Moseev, Holger Niemann, Novimir Pablant, Ekkehard Pasch, Kian Rahbarnia, G. Schlisio, Torsten Stange, T. Sunn Pedersen, J. Svensson, T Szepesi, H. Trimino Mora, Yuriy Turkin, T Wauters, Gavin Weir, U. Wenzel, Thomas Windisch, G. Wurden, D. Zhang, Ivana Abramovic, S. Äkàslompolo, P. Aleynikov, Ksenia Aleynikova, R. Alzbutas, G. Anda, T. Andreeva, Enrique Ascasibar, J. Assmann, S. G. Baek, Martin Banduch, Tullio Barbui, M. Barlak, Kristin Baumann, W. Behr, Andree Benndorf, O. Bertuch, Wolfgang Biel, Dietrich Birus, Boyd Blackwell, E. Blanco, Marko Blatzheim, Torsten Bluhm, Daniel Böckenhoff, Peter Bolgert, Matthias Borchardt, V. Borsuk, J. Boscary, Lukas Georg Böttger, H van den Brand, Ch Brandt, T. Bràuer, H. Braune, S Brezinsek, K. J. Brunner, B. Brünner, R. Burhenn, Birger Buttenschön, Victor Bykov, Ivan Calvo, B. Cannas, Alvaro Cappa, Andre Carls, L. Carraro, B. B. Carvalho, Francisco Castejon, A. Charl, F. Chernyshev, Mark Cianciosa, R. Citarella, Ciupiński, G. Claps, Elizabeth M. Cole, M. J. Cole, F. Cordella, G Cseh, A Czarnecka, A. Czermak, K. Czerski, M. Czerwinski, G. Czymek, A. Da Molin, A. Da Silva, G. Dammertz, J. Danielson, Angel De La Pena, Sven Degenkolbe, P Denner, D. P. Dhard, Marion Dostal, Michael Drevlak, P. Drewelow, Ph Drews, Andrzej Dudek, G. Dundulis, F. Durodie, Paul Von Eeten, Florian Effenberg, G. Ehrke, M Endler, D. Ennis, E. Erckmann, H. Esteban, T. Estrada, Nils Fahrenkamp, J. H. Feist, Joris Fellinger, H. Fernandes, W. H. Fietz, Waldemar Figacz, J. Fontdecaba, O Ford, Tomasz Fornal, H. Frerichs, A. Freund, M. Führer, T. Funaba, A. Galkowski, G. Gantenbein, Y. Gao, J. García Regaña, M Garcia-Munoz, D. Gates, G. Gawlik, B. Geiger, V. Giannella, N. Gierse, Alena Gogoleva, Bruno Reinaldo Goncalves, A. Goriaev, Dorothea Gradic, Michael Grahl, J. Green, A. Grosman, Heinz Grote, M. Gruca, Carlos Guerard, L. Haiduk, X. Han, F. Harberts, J. H. Harris, H.-J. Hartfuß, D. Hartmann, Dag Hathiramani, Bernd Hein, B Heinemann, P. Heitzenroeder, Sophia Henneberg, C. Hennig, J. Hernandez Sanchez, C. Hidalgo, Hauke Hölbe, K. P. Hollfeld, Alf Hölting, D. Höschen, Michael Houry, J. Howard, X. Huang, M. Huber, Valentina Huber, H. Hunger, K. Ida, T Ilkei, S. Illy, Ben Israeli, A. Ivanov, Slowomir Jablonski, J. Jagielski, J. Jelonnek, Hartmut Jenzsch, P. Junghans, J. Kacmarczyk, T. Kaliatka, Johann Peter Kallmeyer, Ute Kamionka, R. Karalevicius, Hiroshi Kasahara, W. Kasparek, Naoki Kenmochi, M. Keunecke, A. Khilchenko, D. J. Kinna, Ralf Kleiber, T. Klinger, M. Knaup, Th Kobarg, F. Köchl, Yaroslav Kolesnichenko, Axel Könies, M. Köppen, J. Koshurinov, R Koslowski, Friedemann Köster, R. Koziol, M. Kràmer, Rüdiger Krampitz, P. Kraszewsk, N. Krawczyk, Thierry Kremeyer, Th Krings, JG Krom, G. Krzesinski, I. Ksiazek, M. Kubkowska, Georg Kühner, T. Kurki-Suonio, Sehyun Kwak, Karl R. Lang, S. Langish, H. Laqua, Ralph Laube, C. Lechte, M. Lennartz, W. Leonhardt, L. Lewerentz, Y. Liang, Ch. Linsmeier, S. Liu, Jim Felix Lobsien, D. Loesser, J. Loizu Cisquella, J. D. Lore, A. Lorenz, M. Losert, L. Lubyako, A. Lücke, A. Lumsdaine, VN Lutsenko, J. Majano-Brown, O. Marchuk, M. Mardenfeld, P. Marek, S. Massidda, S. Masuzaki, D. Maurer, Kieran McCarthy, Paul McNeely, A. Meier, D. Mellein, B. Mendelevitch, Ph. Mertens, DR Mikkelsen, O. Mishchenko, Bernd Missal, Joseph Mittelstaedt, T. Mizuuchi, Albert Mollen, Victor Moncada, Thomas Mönnich, T. Morizaki, R. Munk, S. Murakami, F. Musielok, G. Náfrádi, Mathias Nagel, Dirk Naujoks, G. Hutch Neilson, O. Neubauer, U. Neuner, Tran Tranh Ngo, R. Nocentini, Carolin Nührenberg, Jürgen Nührenberg, S. Obermayer, G. Offermanns, K. Ogawa, J. Ongena, J. W. Oosterbeek, G. Orozco, M. Otte, L. Pacios Rodriguez, Wei Pan, Nerea Panadero, N. Panadero Alvarez, A. Panin, D. Papenfuß, S. Paqay, Andrea Pavone, Ewa Pawelec, G. Pelka, Xiaoniu Peng, Valeria Perseo, Ben Peterson, A. Pieper, Dirk Pilopp, S. Pingel, F. Pisano, B Plaum, Gabriel Plunk, M. Povilaitis, J. Preinhaelter, Josefine Proll, M.E. Puiatti, A. Puig Sitjes, Frank Purps, M. Rack, S. Récsei, A. Reiman, D. Reiter, F. Remppel, S. Renard, R Riedl, Jörg Riemann, S. Rimkevicius, K. Riße, A. Rodatos, H. Röhlinger, M. Romé, Peter Rong, H. J. Roscher, B. Roth, Lukas Rudischhauser, Kerstin Rummel, Thomas Rummel, A. Runov, Norbert Rust, L. Ryc, S. Ryosuke, R. Sakamoto, A. Samartsev, M. Sanchez, F. Sano, Shinsuke Satake, G. Satheeswaran, Jörg Schacht, F. Schauer, T. Scherer, A. Schlaich, K. H. Schlüter, J. Schmitt, Hans Christian Schmitz, O Schmitz, S. Schmuck, M Schneider, W Schneider, M. Scholz, P. Scholz, R Schrittwieser, M. Schröder, Timo Schröder, R. Schroeder, Hans Werner Schumacher, B. Schweer, B. Shanahan, I. V. Shikhovtsev, M. Sibilia, Priyanjana Sinha, Seppo Sipilä, J. Skodzik, Christoph Slaby, Håkan Smith, W. Spiess, D. A. Spong, Anett Spring, Rolf Stadler, Brian Standley, Laurie Stephey, Matthew Stoneking, Uwe Stridde, Z. Sulek, C. Surko, Y. Suzuki, V. Szabó, T. Szabolics, Z. Szökefalvi-Nagy, Naoyuki Tamura, A. Terra, J.L. Terry, J. D. Thomas, H. Thomsen, M. Thumm, C.P Thun, D. Timmermann, P. Titus, K. Toi, J. M. Travere, Paolo Traverso, J. Tretter, Hayato Tsuchiya, T. Tsujimura, S. Tulipán, M. Turnyanskiy, B. Unterberg, Maximilian J. Urban, E. Urbonavicius, I. Vakulchyk, Swetlana Valet, B. Van Millingen, Luis Vela, Jose Luis Velasco, Maarten Vergote, M. Vervier, N Vianello, Holger Viebke, Reinhard Vilbrandt, A. Vorkörper, S. Wadle, Friedrich Wagner, Erhui Wang, Nan Wang, Felix Warmer, Lutz Wegener, J. Weggen, Y. Wei, Jörg Wendorf, Andreas Werner, Burkhard Wiegel, Fabian Wilde, E. Winkler, Victoria Winters, N. S. Wolf, J. Wolowski, A. von Wright, Pavlos Xanthopoulos, Hirofumi Yamada, Ichihiro Yamada, Ryo Yasuhara, Masayuki Yokoyama, J. Zajac, MC Zarnstorff, J. Axel Zeitler, H. Zhang, Jun Zhu, Manfred Zilker, Andreas Zimbal, Alessandro Zocco, S. Zoletnik, M. Zuin

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Abstract

After completing the main construction phase of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and successfully commissioning the device, first plasma operation started at the end of 2015. Integral commissioning of plasma start-up and operation using electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and an extensive set of plasma diagnostics have been completed, allowing initial physics studies during the first operational campaign. Both in helium and hydrogen, plasma breakdown was easily achieved. Gaining experience with plasma vessel conditioning, discharge lengths could be extended gradually. Eventually, discharges lasted up to 6 s, reaching an injected energy of 4 MJ, which is twice the limit originally agreed for the limiter configuration employed during the first operational campaign. At power levels of 4 MW central electron densities reached 3 1019 m-3, central electron temperatures reached values of 7 keV and ion temperatures reached just above 2 keV. Important physics studies during this first operational phase include a first assessment of power balance and energy confinement, ECRH power deposition experiments, 2nd harmonic O-mode ECRH using multi-pass absorption, and current drive experiments using electron cyclotron current drive. As in many plasma discharges the electron temperature exceeds the ion temperature significantly, these plasmas are governed by core electron root confinement showing a strong positive electric field in the plasma centre.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102020
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalNuclear Fusion
Volume57
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Jul 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • current drive
  • magnetic confinement
  • plasma heating
  • stellarator

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    Wolf, R. C., Ali, A., Alonso, A., Baldzuhn, J., Beidler, C., Beurskens, M., ... Zuin, M. (2017). Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. Nuclear Fusion, 57(10), 1-13. [102020]. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aa770d