Low-temperature dark anneal as pre-treatment for LeTID in multicrystalline silicon

Marko Yli-Koski, Michael Serué, Chiara Modanese, Henri Vahlman, Hele Savin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)
274 Downloads (Pure)


Light and elevated temperature induced degradation (LeTID) is currently a severe issue in crystalline silicon photovoltaics, which has led to numerous efforts to both understand the mechanism and to mitigate it. Here we show that a low-temperature dark anneal performed as the last step in typical solar cell processing influences greatly LeTID characteristics, both the strength of the degradation and the degradation kinetics. While a relatively short anneal in the temperature range of 200–240 °C can be detrimental to LeTID by doubling the degradation intensity, an optimized anneal at 300 °C shows the opposite trend providing an efficient means to eliminate LeTID. Furthermore, we show that the simulated recombination activity of metal precipitation and dissolution during the dark anneal correlates with the experiments, suggesting a possible explanation for the LeTID mechanism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)134-139
Number of pages6
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Copper in silicon
  • LeTID
  • Minority-carrier lifetime
  • Multicrystalline silicon
  • PERC
  • Precipitation


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