Localization of Sensorimotor Cortex Using Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Magnetoencephalography

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


  • Minna Pitkänen
  • Shogo Yazawa
  • Katja Airaksinen
  • Pantelis Lioumis

  • Jussi Nurminen
  • Eero Pekkonen
  • Jyrki P. Mäkelä

Research units

  • University of Eastern Finland
  • Sapporo Medical University
  • University of Helsinki


The mapping of the sensorimotor cortex gives information about the cortical motor and sensory functions. Typical mapping methods are navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). The differences between these mapping methods are, however, not fully known. TMS center of gravities (CoGs), MEG somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs), corticomuscular coherence (CMC), and corticokinematic coherence (CKC) were mapped in ten healthy adults. TMS mapping was performed for first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles. SEFs were induced by tactile stimulation of the index finger. CMC and CKC were determined as the coherence between MEG signals and the electromyography or accelerometer signals, respectively, during voluntary muscle activity. CMC was mapped during the activation of FDI and ECR muscles separately, whereas CKC was measured during the waving of the index finger at a rate of 3–4 Hz. The maximum CMC was found at beta frequency range, whereas maximum CKC was found at the movement frequency. The mean Euclidean distances between different localizations were within 20 mm. The smallest distance was found between TMS FDI and TMS ECR CoGs and longest between CMC FDI and CMC ECR sites. TMS-inferred localizations (CoGs) were less variable across participants than MEG-inferred localizations (CMC, CKC). On average, SEF locations were 8 mm lateral to the TMS CoGs (p < 0.01). No differences between hemispheres were found. Based on the results, TMS appears to be more viable than MEG in locating motor cortical areas.


Original languageEnglish
Number of pages9
JournalBrain Topography
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • Corticokinematic coherence, Corticomuscular coherence, Magnetoencephalography, Motor evoked potential, Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation, Somatosensory evoked field

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