Live–virtual–constructive simulation for testing and evaluation of air combat tactics, techniques, and procedures: Part 1: assessment framework

Heikki Mansikka*, Kai Virtanen, Don Harris, Jaakko Salomäki

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


This paper advances live (L), virtual (V), and constructive (C) simulation methodologies by introducing a new LVC simulation framework for the development of air combat tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP). In the framework, TTP is developed iteratively in separate C-, V-, and L-simulation stages. This allows the utilization of the strengths of each simulation class while avoiding the challenges of pure LVC simulations. The C-stage provides the optimal TTP with respect to the probabilities of survival (Ps) and kill (Pk) of aircraft without considering the human–machine interaction (HMI). In the V-stage, the optimal TTP is modified by assessing its applicability with Pk and Ps, as well as HMI measures regarding pilots’ situation awareness, mental workload, and TTP adherence. In the L-stage, real aircraft are used to evaluate whether the developed TTP leads to acceptable Pk, Ps, and HMI measures in a real-life environment. The iterative nature of the framework enables that V- or L-stages can reveal flaws of the TTP and an inadequate TTP can be returned to the C- or V-stage for revision. This paper is Part 1 of a two-part study. Part 2 demonstrates the use of the framework with operationally used C- and V-simulators as well as real F/A-18C aircraft and pilots.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)285-293
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Defense Modeling and Simulation
Issue number4
Early online date1 Jan 2019
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Air combat
  • human factors
  • human–machine interaction
  • live–virtual–constructive
  • mental workload
  • performance
  • simulation
  • situation awareness
  • testing and evaluation


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