Lithium Recovery by Precipitation from Impure Solutions - Lithium Ion Battery Waste

Bing Han, Antti Porvali, Mari Lundström, Marjatta Louhi-Kultanen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)
599 Downloads (Pure)


Hydrochloric acid (HCl) leaching solutions were investigated with the aim of recovering the lithium present in industrial battery waste. The lithium-rich solution after HCl leaching of battery waste contains major impurities such as iron, nickel, cobalt, manganese, aluminum, and copper. This composition was used as a model system to prepare a synthetic solution for lithium recovery by precipitation. The precipitation results indicated that the feeding rate of carbonate and stirring rate had an effect on particle size distribution. Uniform particles were obtained with a semi-batch process. A faster carbonate feeding rate can result in a smaller particle size due to the high supersaturation degree and chemical reaction rates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1205-1210
JournalChemical Engineering and Technology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Lithium battery waste
  • Lithium carbonate
  • Lithium recovery
  • Precipitation


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