Liquid Nitrobenzene-Based Anolyte Materials for High-Current and-Energy-Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries

Donghan Xu, Cuijuan Zhang*, Yihan Zhen, Yongdan Li*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)


Nonaqueous redox flow batteries (NARFBs) are a potential candidate for high-energy-density storage systems because of their wider electrochemical windows than that of the aqueous systems. However, their further development is hindered by the low solubility of organic redox-active materials and poor high-current operations. Herein, we report a liquid anolyte material, 3-nitrotoluene (3-NT), which demonstrates high chemical stability and mass-and charge-transfer kinetics. The NARFB based on 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1-methoxy-4-[2′-methoxyethoxy]benzene/3-NT exhibits an energy efficiency of 71.8% even at a relatively high current density of 60 mA cm-2. Benefiting from the high miscibility of the redox species, an ultra-high volumetric energy density of 37.8 W h L-1 can be achieved at 1.0 M. This work provides a viable method to build an NARFB with both high operational current density and energy density for next-generation, low-cost, and high-energy storage systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)35579–35584
Number of pages6
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number30
Early online date23 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - 4 Aug 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • electrochemical energy storage
  • nitrobenzene
  • nonaqueous electrolyte
  • redox flow battery
  • redox-active organic molecules


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