The intrinsic n-type doping limits of tin oxide (SnO2) and indium oxide (In2O3) are predicted on the basis of formation energies calculated by the density-functional theory using the hybrid-functional methodology. The results show that SnO2 allows for a higher n-type doping level than In2O3. While n-type doping is intrinsically limited by compensating acceptor defects in In2O3, the experimentally measured lower conductivities in SnO2-related materials are not a result of intrinsic limits. Our results suggest that by using appropriate dopants in SnO2 higher conductivities similar to In2O3 should be attainable.
- hybrid functional
- n-type doping
- transparent conducting oxides