Large scale study on the variation of RF energy absorption in the head & brain regions of adults and children and evaluation of the SAM phantom conservativeness

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


  • Jafar Keshvari
  • M. Kivento
  • A. Christ
  • G. Bit-Babik

Research units

  • Tampere University of Technology
  • Aalto University
  • Motorola Solutions, Inc.


This paper presents the results of two computational large scale studies using highly realistic exposure scenarios, MRI based human head and hand models, and two mobile phone models. The objectives are (i) to study the relevance of age when people are exposed to RF by comparing adult and child heads and (ii) to analyze and discuss the conservativeness of the SAM phantom for all age groups. Representative use conditions were simulated using detailed CAD models of two mobile phones operating between 900 MHz and 1950 MHz including configurations with the hand holding the phone, which were not considered in most previous studies. The peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (psSAR) in the head and the pinna tissues is assessed using anatomically accurate head and hand models. The first of the two mentioned studies involved nine head-, four hand- and two phone-models, the second study included six head-, four hand- and three simplified phone-models (over 400 configurations in total). In addition, both studies also evaluated the exposure using the SAM phantom. Results show no systematic differences between psSAR induced in the adult and child heads. The exposure level and its variation for different age groups may be different for particular phones, but no correlation between psSAR and model age was found. The psSAR from all exposure conditions was compared to the corresponding configurations using SAM, which was found to be conservative in the large majority of cases.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2991-3008
Number of pages18
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 18 Mar 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • age dependence, CAD models, cell phone compliance, SAR

ID: 6980294