Ketoprofen and aspirin removal by laccase immobilized on date stones

Osamah J. Al-sareji*, Mónika Meiczinger, Jasim M. Salman, Raed A. Al-Juboori, Khalid S. Hashim, Viola Somogyi, Miklós Jakab

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)
126 Downloads (Pure)


In recent years, enzymatic remediation/biocatalysis has gained prominence for the bioremediation of recalcitrant chemicals. Laccase is one of the commonly investigated enzymes for bioremediation applications. There is a growing interest in immobilizing this enzyme onto adsorbents for achieving high pollutant removal through simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation. Due to the influence of the biomolecule-support interface on laccase activity and stability, it is crucial to functionalize the solid carrier prior to immobilization. Date stone (PDS), as an eco-friendly, low-cost, and effective natural adsorbent, was utilized as a carrier for laccase (fungus Trametes versicolor). After activating PDS through chemical treatments, the surface area increased by thirty-six-fold, and carbonyl groups became more prominent. Batch experiments were carried out for ketoprofen and aspirin biodegradation in aqueous solutions. After six cycles, the laccase maintained 54% of its original activity confirmed by oxidation tests of 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS). In addition, the storage, pH, and thermal stability of immobilized laccase on functionalized date stone (LFPDS) were found to be superior to that of free laccase, demonstrating its potential for ongoing applications. In the aqueous batch mode, this immobilized laccase system was used to degrade 25 mg L−1 of ketoprofen and aspirin, resulting in almost complete removal within 4 h of treatment. This study reveals that agricultural wastes such as date stone can successfully be valorized through simple activation techniques, and the final product can be used as an adsorbent and substrate for immobilization enzyme. The high efficiency of the LFPDS in removing ketoprofen and aspirin highlights the potential of this technology for removing pharmaceuticals and merits its continued development.

Original languageEnglish
Article number137133
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Adsorption
  • Agro-industrial wastes
  • Date stones
  • Immobilization
  • Laccase
  • Pharmaceutical removal


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