Joint effect of ethylene and toluene on carbon nanotube growth

Eldar M. Khabushev, Dmitry V. Krasnikov, Anastasia E. Goldt, Ekaterina O. Fedorovskaya, Alexey P. Tsapenko, Qiang Zhang, Esko I. Kauppinen, Tanja Kallio, Albert G. Nasibulin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)


This work contributes to the understanding of single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis by an aerosol CVD method using ethylene and toluene as a hybrid carbon source. We evaluated an extensive set of synthesis conditions revealing the role of ferrocene, toluene, and ethylene. We found the fundamental role of ethylene promoting nanotube nucleation and catalyst activation degree at all the concentrations studied, and enhancing nanotube growth at low ethylene content. We observed the interplay effect of toluene and ethylene concentrations on the nanotube growth rate, accompanied by the detrimental effect of toluene on catalyst activation degree. Nevertheless, toluene apparently promotes nanotube crystallinity, increasing the film conductivity while used as an individual carbon source. Adjusting the ethylene and toluene concentrations, we produced carbon nanotube-based transparent and conductive films with an equivalent sheet resistance (at 90% transmittance at 550 nm wavelength) value of 57 Ω/□ at the synthesis yield of 0.24 cm2 L−1, which is at least two times higher than the results reported earlier.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)474-483
Number of pages10
Early online date23 Dec 2021
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Aerosol CVD synthesis
  • Equivalent sheet resistance
  • Floating catalyst
  • Single-walled carbon nanotube


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