Jahn–Teller Distortion Induced Mn2+-Rich Cathode Enables Optimal Flexible Aqueous High-Voltage Zn-Mn Batteries

Lixin Dai, Yan Wang, Lu Sun, Yi Ding, Yuanqing Yao, Lide Yao, Nicholas E. Drewett, Wei Zhang*, Jun Tang, Weitao Zheng

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

55 Citations (Scopus)
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Although one of the most promising aqueous batteries, all Zn-Mn systems suffer from Zn dendrites and the low-capacity Mn4+/Mn3+ process (readily leading to the occurrence of Jahn–Teller distortion, which in turn causes structural collapse and voltage/capacity fading). Here, the Mn3+ reconstruction and disproportionation are exploited to prepare the stable, Mn2+-rich manganese oxides on carbon-cloth (CMOs) in a discharged state through an inverted design, which promotes reversible Mn2+/Mn4+ kinetics and mitigates oxygen-related redox activity. Such a 1.65 V Mn2+-rich cathode enable constructing a 2.2 V Zn-Mn battery, providing a high area capacity of 4.16 mA h cm–2 (25 mA h cm–2 for 10 mL electrolyte) and superior 4000-cycle stability. Moreover, a flexible hybrid 2.7 V Zn-Mn battery is constructed using 2-pH hydrogel electrolytes to demonstrate excellent practicality and stability. A further insight has been gained to the commercial application of aqueous energy storage devices toward low-cost, high safety, and excellent energy density.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2004995
Number of pages10
JournalAdvanced Science
Issue number12
Early online date2021
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jun 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • 2-pH hydrogel electrolytes
  • Jahn–Teller distortion
  • Mn2+-rich cathodes
  • reversible Mn/Mn
  • Zn batteries


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