Is the H2 economy realizable in the foreseeable future? Part III: H2 usage technologies, applications, and challenges and opportunities

Hassan Nazir, Navaneethan Muthuswamy, Cindrella Louis, Sujin Jose, Jyoti Prakash, Marthe E.M. Buan, Cristina Flox, Sai Chavan, Xuan Shi, Pertti Kauranen, Tanja Kallio, Gilberto Maia, Kaido Tammeveski, Nikolaos Lymperopoulos, Elena Carcadea, Emre Veziroglu, Alfredo Iranzo*, Arunachala M. Kannan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientificpeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


Energy enthusiasts in developed countries explore sustainable and efficient pathways for accomplishing zero carbon footprint through the H2 economy. The major objective of the H2 economy review series is to bring out the status, major issues, and opportunities associated with the key components such as H2 production, storage, transportation, distribution, and applications in various energy sectors. Specifically, Part I discussed H2 production methods including the futuristic ones such as photoelectrochemical for small, medium, and large-scale applications, while Part II dealt with the challenges and developments in H2 storage, transportation, and distribution with national and international initiatives. Part III of the H2 economy review discusses the developments and challenges in the areas of H2 application in chemical/metallurgical industries, combustion, and fuel cells. Currently, the majority of H2 is being utilized by a few chemical industries with >60% in the oil refineries sector, by producing grey H2 by steam methane reforming on a large scale. In addition, the review also presents the challenges in various technologies for establishing greener and sustainable H2 society.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)28217-28239
Number of pages23
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number53
Early online date21 Aug 2020
Publication statusPublished - 30 Oct 2020
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


  • Combustion
  • Fuel cells
  • H application
  • H society
  • Industrial


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