Investigation of Statutory and Class Society Based Requirements for Electronic Lookout

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review


Novel advanced systems, employing information and communication technology, are emerging. An example of such a system is the electronic lookout (e-lookout), which functions as the visual lookout performed by humans on ships. In this paper, we investigated what types of requirements may arise for e-lookout based on an analysis of statutory documents and existing class society guidelines for autonomous ships. To this end, first, we identified elookout functions based on a functional breakdown, considering both existing maritime function classifications as well as experts’ opinion. Second, we investigated the class society guidelines for autonomous ships concerning elookout and the applicability of existing regulatory requirements for conventional human lookout including those specified by STCW, COLREGS, and SOLAS. Considering the existing regulatory requirements for lookout, we proposed alternative equivalent requirements for e-lookout. Specifically, based on the analysis, we specified seventeen novel requirements for functionality, reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety. It is expected that the analysis implemented, and methodology presented will support the development of an appropriate regulatory framework for e-lookout and autonomous ships.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 33rd European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2023)
PublisherResearch Publishing Services
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)978-981-18-8071-1
Publication statusPublished - 2023
MoE publication typeA4 Conference publication
EventEuropean Safety and Reliability Conference - Southampton, United Kingdom
Duration: 3 Sept 20238 Sept 2023
Conference number: 33


ConferenceEuropean Safety and Reliability Conference
Abbreviated titleESREL
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom


  • autonomous ships
  • electronic lookout
  • functions
  • requirements
  • safety
  • goal-based standards
  • regulatory scoping exercise


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