Interplay of vacancies, hydrogen, and electrical compensation in irradiated and annealed n-type β-Ga2O3

A. Karjalainen*, P. M. Weiser, I. Makkonen, V. M. Reinertsen, L. Vines, F. Tuomisto

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Positron annihilation spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared absorption spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry have been used to study the behavior of gallium vacancy-related defects and hydrogen in deuterium (D) implanted and subsequently annealed β-Ga2O3 single crystals. The data suggest the implantation generates a plethora of VGa-related species, including VGa1- and VGa2-type defects. The latter’s contribution to the positron signal was enhanced after an anneal at 300 °C, which is driven by the passivation of VGaib by hydrogen as seen from infrared measurements. Subsequent annealing near 600 °C returns the positron signal to levels similar to those in the as-received samples, which suggests that split VGa-like defects are still present in the sample. The almost complete removal of the VGaib-2D vibrational line, the appearance of new weak O-D lines in the same spectral region, and the lack of D out-diffusion from the samples suggest that the 600 °C anneal promotes the formation of either D-containing, IR-inactive complexes or defect complexes between VGaib-2D and other implantation-induced defects. The degree of electrical compensation is found to be governed by the interactions between the Ga vacancies and hydrogen.

Original languageEnglish
Article number165702
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 28 Apr 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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