Interfacial Reactions Between ZnAl(Ge) Solders on Cu and Ni Substrates

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Reactions between zinc-aluminum-germanium solder and copper/nickel substrates were investigated after 30 min of soldering at 420textdegreeC that simulates a wafer-level bonding process, and the results were compared to a eutectic zinc-aluminum solder. The ZnAlGe system (81.4 at.% Zn, 13.1 at.% Al, 5.5 at.% Ge) was selected in order to decrease the eutectic temperature of the ZnAleut (88.7 at.% Zn, 11.3 at.% Al) for high-temperature lead-free solder applications. In addition, a standard high temperature storage test at 150textdegreeC was performed up to 3000 h in order to investigate the evolution of the interconnection microstructures. Extensive copper dissolution was discovered during the soldering process. Germanium did not participate in any of the interfacial reactions on a copper substrate. On a nickel substrate, rapid formation of intermetallic compounds was discovered with both solders, and all the aluminum from the 500 $m thick solder was consumed by the formation of the Al3Ni2 phase during bonding. Germanium was observed to dissolve in the Al3Ni2 phase, but the addition of germanium to the solder was not found to affect markedly the interfacial microstructure. Based on the results, isothermal sections at 150textdegreeC of Al-Cu-Zn and Al-Ni-Zn systems are presented with superimposed diffusion paths.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2323-2333
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number4
Early online date19 Jan 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Coper
  • diffusion path
  • intermetallic compounds
  • nickel
  • zinc-aluminium-germanium


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