Instagram, Flickr, or Twitter: Assessing the usability of social media data for visitor monitoring in protected areas

Henrikki Tenkanen, Enrico Di Minin, Vuokko Heikinheimo, Anna Hausmann, Marna Herbst, Liisa Kajala, Tuuli Toivonen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Social media data is increasingly used as a proxy for human activity in different environments, including protected areas, where collecting visitor information is often laborious and expensive, but important for management and marketing. Here, we compared data from Instagram, Twitter and Flickr, and assessed systematically how park popularity and temporal visitor counts derived from social media data perform against high-precision visitor statistics in 56 national parks in Finland and South Africa in 2014. We show that social media activity is highly associated with park popularity, and social media-based monthly visitation patterns match relatively well with the official visitor counts. However, there were considerable differences between platforms as Instagram clearly outperformed Twitter and Flickr. Furthermore, we show that social media data tend to perform better in more visited parks, and should always be used with caution. Based on stakeholder discussions we identified potential reasons why social media data and visitor statistics might not match: the geography and profile of the park, the visitor profile, and sudden events. Overall the results are encouraging in broader terms: Over 60% of the national parks globally have Twitter or Instagram activity, which could potentially inform global nature conservation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number17615
Number of pages11
JournalScientific Reports
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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