Insertion loss in terms of four-port network parameters

K. S. Kostov, J. J. Kyyrä

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Usually, power filters are characterised by their insertion loss (IL). By definition, the IL is applicable to two-port networks, but most filters have a higher number of ports. Single-phase power filters are four-port networks and measurements of their suppression characteristics require one measurement for the common-mode (CM) and another for the differential-mode (DM) IL. Normally, the measurement apparatus have unbalanced ports and CM measurements are relatively easy to perform. However, the DM measurements require balanced-unbalanced conversion at the input and output of the filter. Wideband transformers (baluns) are used for this conversion. Instead of measuring it directly, the CM or DM IL can be calculated from the four-port parameters of the filter. The equations for IL in terms of four-port network parameters are derived theoretically and verified experimentally. The adoption of four-port parameters in engineering practice would reduce the amount of measurement work and increase the reliability and repeatability of the results because the use of baluns or other changes in the equipment under test are not necessary.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)208-216
Number of pages9
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2009
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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