Influence of tool pin design on properties of dissimilar copper to aluminum friction stir welding

Kush P. MEHTA*, Vishvesh J. BADHEKA

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

57 Citations (Scopus)


Dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW) of copper and aluminum was investigated by nine different tool designs, while the rest of the process parameters were kept constant. Mechanical and metallurgical tests such as macrostructure, microstructure, tensile test, hardness, scanning electron microscope and electron X-ray spectrographs were performed to assess the properties of dissimilar joints. The results exhibited that, the maximum joint strength was achieved by the tool of cylindrical pin profile having 8 mm pin diameter. Besides, the fragmental defects increased as the number of polygonal edges decreased, hence the polygonal pin profiles were unsuitable for dissimilar FSW butt joints. Furthermore, the tensile strength increased as the number of polygonal edges increased. Stir zone of polygonal pin profiles was hard and brittle relative to cylindrical tool pin profiles for same shoulder surface. Maximum hardness of HV 283 was obtained at weld made by the polygonal square pin profile. The hard and brittle intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were prominently presented in the stir zone. Phases of IMCs such as CuAl, CuAl2, Cu3Al and Cu9Al4 were presented in the stir zone of dissimilar Cu–Al joints.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-54
Number of pages19
JournalTransactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China (English Edition)
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Cu–Al joint
  • dissimilar friction stir welding
  • intermetallic
  • pin profiles
  • properties


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