Influence of titanium dioxide surface activation on the performance of mesoscopic perovskite solar cells

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Researchers

  • Muhammad Talha Masood
  • Christian Weinberger
  • S. Qudsia
  • Emil Rosqvist
  • Oskar J. Sandberg
  • Mathias Nyman
  • S. Sandén
  • P. Vivo
  • Kerttu Aitola

  • Peter Lund

  • Ronald Österbacka
  • Jan Henrik Smått

Research units

  • Åbo Akademi University
  • National University of Sciences and Technology Pakistan
  • Tampere University

Abstract

Perovskite solar cells with record efficiencies already above 24% are a highly promising clean energy technology. However, the reproducibility in their fabrication has proven to be challenging and needs more attention. Here we demonstrate that surface activation of the mesoscopic titanium dioxide (TiO2) scaffold, utilized in the two-step perovskite synthesis process, significantly affects the final device performance. Irradiating the mesostructured substrate with ultraviolet (UV) light prior to lead iodide (PbI2) deposition has a positive effect on the short-circuit current density and on the overall device performance (leading to a >20% increase in efficiency in our devices). As most of the UV light is absorbed in the topmost TiO2 layer, the interior of the scaffold remains less activated. This results in a sparsely packed PbI2 structure that facilitates an efficient conversion to the perovskite, while the activated topmost surface improves the perovskite capping layer. On the contrary, plasma treatment of the scaffold also activates the interior parts of the scaffold, which leads to a dense PbI2 structure that hampers the conversion and causing a >25% efficiency drop. We show that also minor changes in the surface properties of the mesoporous TiO2 scaffold can affect the device performance, which could explain some of the large efficiency variations observed between laboratories.

Details

Original languageEnglish
Article number137418
Pages (from-to)1-7
JournalThin Solid Films
Volume686
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sep 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • Lead iodide-to-perovskite conversion, Mesoscopic titanium dioxide scaffold, Perovskite solar cells, Plasma treatment, Surface activation, Ultraviolet treatment

ID: 36035349