Spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) wood lamellae, thermally treated at 170, 190, 210 and 230 °C were surface densified by compression at a temperature of 150 °C to three degrees of compression. Immediate springback, set recovery, mechanical properties in 3-point flexure, Brinell hardness and density profiles measurements were used to determine the effect of thermal treatment on the properties of surface densified wood. The highest immediate springback occurred in wood specimens thermally treated at the highest temperature (230 °C) and decreased with decreasing thermal treatment temperature. The untreated samples had the highest set recovery, which decreased with the temperature of thermal treatment. The surface densification increased hardness and bending strength. The highest increase was in the case of untreated wood and decreased with the temperature of thermal treatment. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) of surface densified wood decreased with increasing thermal treatment temperature. The trend was similar for specimens which were thermally treated but not surface densified. Surface densification increased the density of the specimens in the first few millimetres below the surface. The highest density was achieved in untreated specimens and the lowest in specimens thermally treated at the highest temperature.