Influence of Protic Ionic Liquid-Based Flame Retardant on the Flammability and Water Sorption of Alkalized Hemp Fiber-Reinforced PLA Composites

Percy Festus Alao*, Raimond Press, Jussi Ruponen, Valdek Mikli, Jaan Kers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
5 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

This article investigates the effects of combining a novel protic ionic liquid-based fire retardant (FR) with alkalized hemp fiber. A pivotal importance of this study refers to the hydrophilic properties and limits regarding poor thermal resistance of green composites where standard guidelines for fire risks are crucial. Although it is well-studied that alkalization is essential for green composite’s moisture and mechanical durability, research on the flammability of such a combined treatment for natural fiber-reinforced biopolymer composites is lacking. The alkaline treatment used in the current study follows a process already studied as optimal, particularly for the selected hemp fiber. The fire performance was examined using a bench scale approach based on self and piloted ignition from cone calorimeter tests. The result from the Fourier-transform infrared analysis of the hemp fiber confirms phosphorylation following the fire-retardant treatment, which was visible from the morphological examination with scanning electron microscope. The presence of FR in the composites led to impactful moisture sorption. However, the FR composites demonstrated an enhanced response to fire, indicating potential use as a Class B standard for building construction, and hazard level 3 (HL3) classification as an interior material in vehicles, provided the problem of high emission of smoke is mitigated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3661
Number of pages15
JournalPolymers
Volume15
Issue number18
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Sept 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • fire classification
  • fire reaction
  • fire-retardant fiber-reinforced composites
  • hemp fibers
  • hygroscopic
  • transportation materials

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