Influence of Highly Resistive Ground Parameters on Lightning-Induced Overvoltages Using 3-D FDTD Method

Mohammad E M Rizk, Farhan Mahmood, Matti Lehtonen, Ebrahim A. Badran, Mansour H. Abdel-Rahman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


It is important for the proper insulation design of the distribution system that lightning-induced overvoltages ( LIOVs) are accurately computed. This paper investigates the impact of ground resistivity, considering wide range up to 20 kΩm, on LIOVs impinging an overhead line due to nearby return stroke using the three-dimensional finite difference time domain (3-D FDTD) method. The investigation considers two values of both ground permittivity as well as the rise rate of lightning current. Subsequently, it is inferred that the influence of both ground permittivity and rise rate of lightning current on the peak values of LIOVs depends on the ground resistivity. Furthermore, horizontal conduction and displacement current densities are also calculated on the ground surface under the line to analyze the behavior of ground surface impedance. Consequently, it is deduced that the behavior of the impedance changes from inductive to capacitive at high values of ground resistivity, thus increasing the time to the peak value of LIOVs. The peak values of LIOVs computed using the 3-D FDTD method are compared with those calculated using Darveniza's formula. It has been revealed that this formula considerably underestimates the peak values of LIOVs at high values of ground resistivity. Thereby, an interpretation is presented for the reason of this underestimation from an electromagnetic perspective. Accordingly, Darveniza's formula is appropriately modified to improve the computation accuracy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7422094
Pages (from-to)792-800
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Finite-difference time domain method
  • ground impedance
  • lightning-induced overvoltages
  • overhead line
  • return stroke


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