Influence of driving cycle uncertainty on electric city bus energy consumption

Klaus Kivekäs, Jari Vepsäläinen, Kari Tammi, Joel Anttila

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


The objective of this study was to analyze the energy consumption variations of an electric city bus caused by driving cycle uncertainty on a specific route. A novel energy consumption analysis method was developed to create a reliable energy consumption forecast for a bus route. The method is based on synthesizing new artificial driving cycles for a selected route by compiling the new cycles from segments of actual cycles measured from the route. The segment-based synthetization algorithm randomizes the bus stops at which the vehicle stops and the measured base cycle used for each segment of the route. 4000 driving cycles were synthesized for a suburban bus route in Espoo, Finland, and a validated full-electric city bus simulation model was used to run the cycles. As a result, an energy consumption distribution forecast was obtained for the route. The energy consumption distribution forecast closely resembled a normal distribution. Furthermore, the energy consumption influence of the number of stops made at bus stops during the cycle was examined. The relationship between the number of stops and the energy consumption was linear.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2017 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-5386-1317-7
Publication statusPublished - 2018
MoE publication typeA4 Conference publication
EventIEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference - Belfort, France
Duration: 11 Dec 201714 Dec 2017
Conference number: 14


ConferenceIEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference
Abbreviated titleVPPC
Internet address


  • electric
  • bus
  • stop
  • simulation
  • model
  • energy
  • forecast
  • distribution
  • uncertainty
  • driving
  • cycle


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