Indocyanine green-assisted and LED-light-activated antibacterial photodynamic therapy reduces dental plaque

Sakari Nikinmaa, Niina Moilanen, Timo Sorsa, Juha Rantala, Heikki Alapulli, Anja Kotiranta, Petri Auvinen, Esko Kankuri*, Jukka H. Meurman, Tommi Pätilä

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Aim: This study aimed to determine the feasibility and first efficacy of indocyanine green (ICG)-assisted antimicrobial photodynamictherapy (aPDT) as activated using LED light to the dental plaque. Methods: Fifteen healthy adults were assigned to this four-day randomized study. After rinsing with ICG, 100 J/cm2 of 810 nm LED light was applied to the aPDT-treatment area. Plaque area and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) were measured, and plaque bacteriomes before and after the study were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Results: aPDT administration was preformed successfully and plaque-specifically with the combination of ICG and the applicator. Total plaque area and endpoint MMP-8 levels were reduced on the aPDT-treatment side. aPDT reduced Streptococcus, Acinetobacteria, Capnocytophaga, and Rothia bacteria species in plaques. Conclusion: ICG-assisted aPDT reduces plaque forming bacteria and exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-proteolytic effects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number52
Number of pages11
JournalDentistry Journal
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Antibacterial photodynamic therapy
  • Dental plaque
  • Gingivitis


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