Inclusion Engineering

Lauri Holappa*, Olle Wijk

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterScientificpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of inclusion engineering is to generate such inclusions in steel which are beneficial or at least harmless during the process and in the final steel end product. Thus, it means control of the amount, size distribution, and composition as well as properties of nonmetallic inclusions in steel. In this review, the fundamentals of inclusions formation and control are discussed. As examples, production of steels with deformable silicate inclusions, modification of oxides, and sulfides with calcium, and inclusions for grain refinement are introduced. As a practical steelmaking case, the last half-century progress of ball-bearing steel is reviewed. Electro slag remelting is shortly examined as an example of unconventional method for steel refining, inclusion control, and structure improvement. Finally, some future trends and ideas are considered.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTreatise on Process Metallurgy
PublisherElsevier Ltd.
Number of pages26
ISBN (Print)9780080969886
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA3 Part of a book or another research book


  • Calcium treatment
  • Deoxidation
  • Inclusion control
  • Inclusion growth and removal
  • Nonmetallic inclusions
  • Nucleation
  • Silicate inclusions
  • Sulfide inclusions

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Inclusion Engineering'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this