Beta-tricalcium phosphate-reinforced high-density polyethylene (P-TCP/HDPE) is a new biomaterial which was made as a copy of bone composition with the aim of replacement of bony tissues. The composite samples were prepared using medical grade TCP powder and granular polyethylene. The raw materials were first compounded and the resulting composite preforms were compression molded into desired shape. The biocompatibility of composite samples with different volume fractions of TCP (20, 30, and 40 vol %) was assessed by proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and cell adhesion assays using G-292 osteoblast cells. Cell-material interaction on the surface of the composites was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of beta-TCP/HDPE on the behavior of G-292 cells was compared with those of a composite and a negative control samples. Results showed the composite samples had a higher proliferation rate of G-292 cells in the presence of composite samples as compared to the composite control sample after 3, 7, and 14 days of incubation period. ALP production after incubation in the presence of composite samples was seen to peak on the day 7. The number of adhered cells on the composite samples was higher than the numbers adhered on composite and negative control samples after the above incubation periods. Morphology investigation of adhered cells by SEM indicated a normal morphology and also many of the cells were in the process of cell division. The above results indicate that beta-TCP/HDPE samples are biocompatible, nontoxic, and in some cases show an increase in the proliferation rate of the cells, ALP production, and cell adhesion as compared to the control counterparts. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.