In situ cross-linking of stimuli-responsive hemicellulose microgels during spray drying

Weifeng Zhao, Robertus Wahyu N Nugroho, Karin Odelius, Ulrica Edlund, Changsheng Zhao, Ann Christine Albertsson*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


Chemical cross-linking during spray drying offers the potential for green fabrication of microgels with a rapid stimuli response and good blood compatibility and provides a platform for stimuli-responsive hemicellulose microgels (SRHMGs). The cross-linking reaction occurs rapidly in situ at elevated temperature during spray drying, enabling the production of microgels in a large scale within a few minutes. The SRHMGs with an average size range of ∼1-4 Μm contain O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan as a matrix and poly(acrylic acid), aniline pentamer (AP), and iron as functional additives, which are responsive to external changes in pH, electrochemical stimuli, magnetic field, or dual-stimuli. The surface morphologies, chemical compositions, charge, pH, and mechanical properties of these smart microgels were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, IR, zeta potential measurements, pH evaluation, and quantitative nanomechanical mapping, respectively. Different oxidation states were observed when AP was introduced, as confirmed by UV spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Systematic blood compatibility evaluations revealed that the SRHMGs have good blood compatibility. This bottom-up strategy to synthesize SRHMGs enables a new route to the production of smart microgels for biomedical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4202-4215
Number of pages14
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 25 Feb 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • cross-linking
  • hemicellulose
  • microgel
  • polysaccharides
  • spray drying
  • stimuli-responsive


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