Implementation of three-phase transformer model in radial load-flow analysis

Mamdouh Abdel-Akher*, Karar Mahmoud

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents an efficient approach for developing three-phase transformer admittance matrices in the radial power-flow analysis. The proposed transformer model overcomes the singularity problem of the nodal admittance submatrices of ungrounded transformer configurations. This has been achieved by applying symmetrical components modeling. The classical (6 × 6) transformer nodal admittance matrix written in phase components is converted to sequence components instead of the (3 × 3) admittance submatrices. In this model, the phase shifts accompanied with special transformer connections are included in the radial power-flow solution process without any convergence problems. The final model of the transformer is represented by a generalized power-flow equation written in phase components. The developed equation is applicable for all transformer connections. The transformer model is integrated into the radial power-flow and tested using the IEEE radial feeders. The results have shown that the developed transformer model is very efficient and the radial power-flow has robust convergence characteristics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65-73
Number of pages9
JournalAin Shams Engineering Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Distribution systems
  • Load flow analysis
  • Symmetrical components
  • Transformer model

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